Most preventable coronary heart disease is caused by what are known as cardiovascular risk factors. These include smoking, high blood pressure, family history (genetics), blood fats (particularly cholesterol) and diabetes. Each individual who attends the clinic has a comprehensive assessment and recommendation. Specific testing for individuals with a family history of early onset heart disease includes biochemical testing and genetic testing for Familial Hypercholesterolaemia if appropriate. Non-invasive cardiovascular testing such as CT coronary calcium scoring at Spire Hospital is available.